is used for downstream processing (DSP) and can be divided into adsorption, distribution-, ion-exchange-, exclusion-, affinity-, and chiral chromatography based on the separation principle. The chromatographic steps include isolation (capture) and several purification steps (polishing).
The single-use gel chromatography columns on the market are already packed, sterilized, qualified and, thus, ready to use. Nevertheless, their performance and scalability is limited. A promising alternative is single-use membrane absorbers. See membrane chromatography.